Pocket reduction surgery (also known as gingivectomy, osseous surgery and flap surgery) is a collective term for a series of several different surgeries aimed at gaining access to the roots of the teeth in order to remove bacteria and tartar (calculus).
The human mouth contains dozens of different bacteria at any given time. The bacteria found in plaque (the sticky substance on teeth) produce acids that lead to demineralization of the tooth surface, and ultimately contribute to periodontal disease.
Periodontal infections cause a chronic inflammatory response in the body that literally destroys bone and gum tissues once they invade the subgingival area (below the gum line). Gum pockets form and deepen between the gums and teeth as the tissue continues to be destroyed.
Periodontal disease is a progressive condition which, if left untreated, causes massive bacteria colonization in gum pockets and can eventually cause teeth to fall out. Pocket reduction surgery is an attempt to alleviate this destructive cycle, and reduce the depth of the bacteria-harboring pockets.
Reasons for the pocket reduction surgery
Pocket reduction surgery is a common periodontal procedure which has been proven effective at eliminating bacteria, reducing inflammation and saving teeth. The goals of pocket reduction surgery are:
- Reducing bacterial spread – Oral bacteria has been connected to many other serious conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Oral bacteria can travel to various parts of the body from inside the bloodstream and begin to colonize. It is important to decrease bacteria in the mouth in order to reduce the risk of secondary infection.
- Halting bone loss – The chronic inflammatory response induced by oral bacteria leads the body to destroy bone tissue. As the jawbone becomes affected by periodontal disease, the teeth lose their rigid anchor. When the teeth become too loose, they may require extraction.
- Facilitate home care – As the gum pockets become progressively deeper, they become incredibly difficult for the patient to clean. The toothbrush and dental floss cannot reach the bottom of the pockets, increasing the risk of further periodontal infections.
- Enhancing the smile – An oral cavity that is affected by periodontal disease is not attractive to the eye. In fact, smiles may be marred by brown gums, rotting teeth and ridge indentations. Pocket reduction surgery halts the progression of gum disease and improves the aesthetics of the smile.
What does pocket reduction surgery involve?
Before recommending treatment or performing any procedure, the dentist will perform thorough visual and X-ray examinations in order to assess the condition of the teeth, gums, and underlying bone. Pocket reduction surgery can be performed under local or general anesthetic depending on patient preferences.
The gums will be gently pulled back from the teeth and bacteria and calculus (tartar) will be eliminated. Scaling and root planing will generally be required to fully remove the ossification (tartar) from the surface of the tooth root. If the root is not completely smooth, a planing procedure will be performed to ensure that when the gums do heal, they will not reattach to rough or uneven surfaces.
The final part of the surgery is usually the administration of an antimicrobial liquid to eliminate any remaining bacteria and promote healing. The gum is then sutured with tiny stitches that are left in place for 5-10 days.
Though the gums will be more sensitive immediately following the procedure, there will be a significant reduction in pocket depth and a vast improvement in the condition of the teeth and gums.
If you have any questions about pocket reduction surgery or treatment for periodontal disease, please contact our practice.
Root amputation is a specialized dental procedure, whereby one root is removed from a multi-root tooth. The tooth is then stabilized and rendered fully functional with a crown or filling. The multi-root teeth best suited to the root amputation procedure are the molars at the back of the mouth. These large flat teeth have either two or three roots depending on whether they are situated on the upper or lower jaw.
The general purpose of root amputation is to save an injured or diseased tooth from extraction. Most dentists agree that there is no better alternative than retaining a healthy natural tooth, and the root amputation procedure makes this possible. Dental implants, extensive bridgework and custom-made tooth replacements can be expensive and time-consuming. Generally, root amputation and the necessary crown work are less expensive and can be completed in 1-3 short visits.
When is root amputation necessary?
It is important to note that root amputation can only be performed on an otherwise healthy tooth. Even in the case of a “key” tooth, extraction will be performed if the tooth is diseased, badly fractured or otherwise injured. Suitable teeth for root amputation have a healthy tooth surface, strong bone support and healthy underlying gums.
There are several problems that may lead to root amputation including:
- Broken, fractured or injured teeth and roots.
- Embedded bacteria within the structure of the root.
- Severe bone loss in a concentrated area due to periodontitis.
- Tooth decay in a concentrated area of the tooth.
What does root amputation involve?
Prior to root amputation, it is necessary to perform root canal treatment. The amputation itself involves cutting deep into the tooth where blood vessels and nerves are located. For this reason, the pulp of the tooth including these vessels and nerves needs to be removed before resectioning the roots. The root canal and amputation treatments will be performed under local anesthetic.
During the root amputation procedure, a small incision will be created in the gum to fully expose the roots of the affected tooth. The root will be sectioned off from the rest of the tooth and then removed. To kill any remaining bacteria, the whole area will be cleansed with saline solution, and then sutures (stitches) will be applied to seal the incision.
Finally, a temporary crown or filling will be placed to secure the tooth. Depending on the specific situation, painkillers, antibiotics and a medicated anti-microbial mouthwash may be prescribed. In 7-10 days, the stitches will be removed and the gum will have healed. Arrangements can now be made to place the permanent crown or filling.
If you have any questions or concerns about root amputation, please ask your dentist.